Single Op-Amp Bandpass Filter
Center Frequency = Square Root of (Lower Frequency * Upper Frequency)
The quality factor, or Q of the filter is a measure of the distance between the upper and lower frequency points and is defined as (Center Frequency / BW) so that as the passband gets narrower around the same center frequency, the Q factor becomes higher. The quality factor represents the sharpness of the filter, or rate that the amplitude falls as the input frequency moves away from the center frequency during the first octave. As the frequency gets more than one octave away from center frequency the rollof approaches 6 dB per octave regardless of Q value. Approximate rolloff rates for different Q values for a single octave change from center frequency are:
Q = 1 = 6 dB
Q = 5 = 18 dB
Q = 10 = 24 dB
Q = 50 = 40 dB
For a single op-amp bandpass filter with both capacitors the same value, the Q factor must be greater than the square root of half the gain, so that a gain of 98 would require a Q factor of 7 or more.
The example below shows a 1700 Hz bandpass filter with a Q of 8 and a gain of 65 at center frequency (1700 Hz). Resistor values for the filter can be worked out using the three formulas below. Both capacitor values need to be the same for the formulas to work and are chosen to be 0.01uF which is a common value usable at audio frequencies. This same filter is used in the "Whistle On / Whistle Off" relay toggle circuit.
R1 = Q / (G*C*2*Pi*F) = 8/(65 * .00000001 * 6.28 * 1700) = 1152 or 1.1K
R2 = Q / ((2*Q^2)-G)*C*2*Pi*F) = 8/((128-65) * .00000001 * 6.28 * 1700) = 1189 or 1.2K
R3 = (2*Q) / (C*2*Pi*F) = 16 / (.00000001 * 6.28 * 1700) = 150K